For some unknown reason already in the 17th century the part of the city on the other side of the Sutolka River was named Old Ufa. In the 16th century the vicinity of current Moskovskaya Street was occupied by the soldiers and artillerymen (Streltsy and Pushkary), who were sent to protect Ufa Kremlin. They considered St. Sergius of Radonezh, one of the most esteemed Russian saints, to be their patron saint. Around Russia almost 600 churches (cathedrals) are named after him. In Moscow alone there are 67 churches and chapels named after St. Sergius of Radonezh.
In Ufa a wooden St. Sergius of Radonezh Church was built in 1868 at the site of the ancient church founded by Moscow soldiers. The best part of the church parish consisted of artillerymen (Pushkary). That is why historian K. Kheruvimov believed that initially the church was erected by the soldiers and artillerymen because of their "special respect to reverend St. Sergius, who has always been considered to be the patron saint of artillerymen and Moscow". Local historian A. Peker believed that the church was built by the former inhabitants of Sergiev Posad (a town near Moscow) to commemorate the native land they had left. P. Ishcherikov claimed that the church was founded by the monks of burnt-out Ufa St. Sergius Monastery.
The church parish consisted of the inhabitants of Old Ufa and Zolotukha settlement. By the early 20th century the parish amounted to 1.692 people, including 22 Old Believers. The church was remarkable because of its ancient icon of St. Sergius of Radonezh. It is this icon that Admiral Kolchak was blessed with in Ufa in May 1919. The St. Sergius Church bell tower featured six bells with the largest one weighting 81 poods and 38 pounds (almost 1.350 kg).
The iconostasis was made in 1894 by Trapeznikov in compliance with all the traditions of church art. The money was donated by merchant Fyodor Chizhov. Local archpriest Fyodor Troitsky made a lot of efforts to erect and decorate the church. He produced icons for the church, gilt the iconostasis and icon-cases. He served as a senior priest of St. Sergius Church until 1884. Famous Ufa painter Mikhail Nesterov left warm memories about Fyodor Troitsky.
The adjacent streets had respective names: Bolshaya Sergiyevskaya and Malaya Sergiyevskaya Streets (currently Mendeleeva and Bekhtereva Streets) and two Sergievsky pereuloks.
The Church of the Transfiguration near the cemetery was affiliated with St. Sergius Church, that is why Ufa Christian cemetery was called St. Sergius Cemetery. In 1933 a number of churches were closed down, including the Resurrection Cathedral, St. Nicholas and St. Simeon Churches. After that St. Sergius Church served as a cathedral. In 1937 bishop Gregorius was arrested together with the clergy. For several years the church was opened, but there was no church service. The church was maintained by its watch and cleaners of the church. Church service was restored in 1942. On June 3, 1944 Ufa archbishop Stephen received a telegram from Iosif Stalin. The leader of the Soviet Union thanked the parish of St. Sergius Church for donating 200 thousand rubles to the USSR Defense Fund and 140 thousand for presents to soldiers.
In 1945 the clergy and parish of St. Sergius Church were awarded a letter of gratitude from hospital No.4018 for the presents, money and assistance to the wounded. In 1946 the clergy of the church were awarded Medals "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945". In 1945 alone the parish of St. Sergius Church donated 919,500 rubles.
In 1945-1982 Moses Chigvintsev served in the church. He was endowed with the gift of prophecy, foresight and healing. Currently he is canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in the holy face of the reverend. His relics currently rest in the church.
In recent years the exterior of the church has changed dramatically: the church domes have been gilt. Besides, for many years the church remained dark blue, now it is painted a much lighter turquoise color.