In September 1788 Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly (initially it was called Ufa Spiritual Assembly of the Muslim Law) was founded in Ufa and headed by a Mufti appointed by the Emperor or Minister of Internal Affairs from among the most influential spiritual leaders. The powers of the Assembly spread through the Russian territory excluding the Crimea. According to the 1788 Decree the Assembly was assigned to exam the persons willing to obtain clerical titles. Later it was also assigned to manage marriages, divorces, and Muslim service.
After the death of the first Mufti Mukhamedzhan Khusainov on April 29, 1827, Tarkhan Gabdessalyam Gabdrakhimov (former first imam of Orenburg Mosque) was appointed to the position. He had to say namaz in his own house on the future Telegrafnaya Street (nowadays Tsuryupy), which was later occupied by an Ufa school. In this context he addressed the governorate administration and asked for land in order to build a house and mosque in an empty district on the spot of the former governorate administration which had burnt down during the fire of 1821. On May 5, 1828 the governorate construction committee chose a spot in the quarter center with two spots on each side: for a Mufti house to the right and the clergy and guest Muslims to the left.
The mosque building (1830) and guests house were sponsored through donations, whereas the Mufti house was funded by the treasury. In 1839 this house was granted to Gabdrakhimov and excluded from the list of public houses. The Classicism mosque was constructed by architect Mukmin Tagirov Khazmitev. He was a famous Ufa 2nd guild merchant. The construction cost 12 thousand silver rubles. The stone building had one minaret. It was reconstructed and further constructed on numerous occasions. Specifically, in the early 20th century the building was supplemented with a southern wing with a large drumless dome. This addition was larger than the initial building with a minaret.
After Gabdrakhimov's death his son Akhmadi Gabdussalyamov was appointed imam khatib of the mosque. On January 2, 1885 upon consent of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Mufti Salimgarey Shangareevich Tevkilev (1807-1885) was buried on the territory of the cathedral mosque.
In 1890 akhoond Khairulla Usmanov (1846-1907) (who was appointed to the position on April 15, 1888) purchased a house with backhouse buildings, bath-house, and orchard on Frolovskaya Street between the Asyakayev's and Maksyutov's houses. The house was purchased for the 1st cathedral mosque through the parish donations. In 1887 the mosque opened a Madrassas which was subsequently named Usmania after Khairulla Usmanov who donated a lot for the purposes of the Muslim community. Madrassas students were supplied with bookcases, tables, and books. Usmania was very popular in the city. Besides, the mosque patronaged a two-year Russian-Bashkir school.
In September 1864 the building of the Muslim Spiritual Assembly was constructed in accordance with the initial project. In July 1865 the Orenburg and Samara General-Governor offered the Muslim Spiritual Assembly to accept a house which was built specially for the Assembly.
The first cathedral mosque was a supreme mosque of Russia. By the early 20th century its parish numbered almost a thousand of people. From 1960 to 1992 the first cathedral mosque was the only operating mosque of Ufa.